We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75°00′S, 15°00′E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20 m) firn cores distributed within a 3.5-7 km distance, retrieved during the 2000/01 Nordic EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) traverse. Snow accumulation rates estimated for shorter periods show higher spatial variance than for longer periods. Accumulation variability as recorded from the firn cores and snow pits cannot explain all the variation in the ion and isotope time series; other depositional and post-depositional processes need to be accounted for. Through simple statistical analysis we show that there are differences in sensitivity to these processes between the analyzed species. Oxygen isotopes and sulphate are more conservative in their post-depositional behaviour than the more volatile acids, such as nitrate and to some degree chloride and methanesulphonic acid. We discuss the possible causes for the accumulation variability and the implications for the interpretation of ice-core records.
Juan Bernat is preparing for a feisty Champions League encounter when Bayern Munich travels to Benfica this evening.Bayern Munich defender Juan Bernat is eagerly anticipating the second leg of the Champions League quarterfinal tie against Benfica, but expects a tough test in Lisbon.The Bundesliga-leading side recorded a 1-0 win in the first game courtesy of an early Arturo Vidal strike and will be looking to book its ticket for the final four tonight. Bernat is well aware that it will not be straightforward for Bayern, though, and hopes the team can get an early goal at the Estadio da Luz to make things easier.“The game against Benfica will be like a war,” Bernat told TZ. “Benfica will be hugely motivated and try to take advantage of the home advantage. It will be a great game, I have no doubt about that. I hope that we can score an important away goal. That would make things very difficult for them.“We cannot always expect our attackers to score three or four goals.”Bayern coach Pep Guardiola will still be without the likes of Jerome Boateng (groin), Holger Badstuber (ankle) and Arjen Robben (groin) due to injury, while Kingsley Coman (thigh) and Medhi Benatia (groin) are both doubtful.Benfica saw off Zenit in the round of 16 to reach the quarterfinals and has now set its sights on its first semifinal appearance since 1989-90.Midfielder Pizzi knows overturning a one-goal deficit against one of Europe’s top clubs will not be easy, but the Portugal international is nonetheless hopeful Benfica can pull off a surprise.“We’ve been showing our quality in the Champions League. It’s not just my dream but the dream of all my teammates to be in a Champions League semifinal,” Pizzi told the official UEFA website. “We’re close, we know it will be difficult but we will give everything. We will fight from the first minute to the last to achieve our goal.“There is a fantastic atmosphere at the Estadio da Luz. Our fans show all their passion, and obviously everyone at Benfica expects another great European night.”Benfica will have to make do without suspended star striker Jonas following his booking at the Allianz Arena, while Julio Cesar (thigh) and Nuno Santos (knee) will also be missing.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram