Cold-resistance studies of marine invertebrates have concentrated on intertidal sedentary organisms, which are often subjected to subzero air temperatures in winter. Mobile rock pool inhabitants have been rarely studied because such habitats are thought to buffer environmental variation. However, it is not uncommon for small upper-shore rock pools (∼2 by 1 cm) to become completely frozen. Such supralittoral habitats are subject to extreme physicochemical fluctuations especially in salinity (0 to 300‰) and temperature (−1 to +32°C) due to evaporation and dilution. The dominant invertebrate in such habitats is the harpacticoid copepodTigriopus brevicornis.Aspects of the cryobiology ofT. brevicorniswere investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermograms obtained from DSC allowed determinations of freeze-onset (supercooling point, SCP), melt-onset, and melt-peak (melting point, MP) temperatures, together with estimation of the proportion of water freezing in the samples. The effects of acclimation salinity, temperature, starvation, and reproductive state on these cryobiological parameters were investigated. Acclimation to increasing salinity depressed the SCP, with the highest salinity (70‰) producing the lowest SCP, melt-onset, and MP temperatures at −27.5, −15.2, and −9.5°C respectively. The highest acclimation temperature (20°C) produced the lowest SCP (−23.4°C). Starvation significantly increased the SCP, melt-onset, and MP temperatures in comparison to fed individuals acclimated to the same salinity. The presence of eggs or ovaries in individual copepods elevated the SCP compared to nongravid females and males. LT50studies showed that acclimation to high salinity improved the ability ofT. brevicornisto survive in frozen seawater. Seventy parts per thousand acclimated individuals had an LT50of 64.9 h compared with just 1.4 h for 5‰ acclimated individuals in frozen seawater at −5°C. The study shows that the cold-resistance capabilities ofT. brevicorniscan be affected by several different factors, and the link between the osmoconforming nature of this species and its cold resistance is discussed.
Caption: Mimi Rhodes (image copyright Leaderboard Photography). Tags: Lily May Humphreys, Mimi Rhodes, World Junior Girls 10 Sep 2018 England trio target world girls’ title Leading teenagers Lily May Humphreys, Mimi Rhodes and Caitlin Whitehead will represent England in this week’s World Junior Girls in Canada.They will take on the challenge of golfers from 17 other countries in the 72-hole championship, which starts tomorrow at Camelot Golf Club, Ottawa.The field includes 10 players who are ranked among the world’s top 100 women amateurs, with Lily May Humphreys among them.The 16-year-old from Stoke by Nayland, Essex, is currently ranked 45th in the world. Earlier this season she became one of England’s youngest-ever Curtis Cup players and she is the Scottish women’s open amateur champion. Last season she won English, British and European titles and scored her first victory in America. She has been picked for Team GB for next month’s Youth Olympics.Mimi Rhodes, 16, (Burnham and Berrow, Somerset) was in England’s winning team at the Girls’ Home Internationals and was tied sixth individually in qualifying for the European girls’ team championship. She has been on form all season, reaching the last 16 in the British girls’ championship, taking fourth place in the English girls’ and challenging strongly in the English women’s open amateur.Caitlin Whitehead, 15, is on a winning streak, having captured the girls’ title at the European Young Masters and followed up with victory for Europe in the Asia Pacific Junior Championship in Hong Kong. There, she paired up with Finland’s Sakke Siltala to win the tem prize by eight shots and to also claim the individual girls’ prize. She was also in England’s winning team at the Girls’ Home Internationals.
Advertisement himNBA Finals | Brooklyn VshxWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E9xz2( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) vmWould you ever consider trying this?😱rea4Can your students do this? 🌚1Roller skating! Powered by Firework India’s dependable opener Smriti Mandhana is now the the 3rd fastest woman to reach 2000 runs in ODI cricket. The star batter took just 51 innings to go past the 2000 runs mark thereby becoming the 2nd fastest Indian after Shikhar Dhawan (48) to achieve this record. She also helped India win the ODI series with her match-winning fifty against the Windies in Antigua on Wednesday,Advertisement Smriti, who stands at 2025 runs in 51 games with an average of 43.08, reached the milestone faster than Virat Kohli (53), Sourav Ganguly (52), and Navjot Sidhu (52). However, former Aussie, Belinda Clark has reached this feat fastest (45) in women’s cricket. In men’s cricket though, Hashim Amla is the sole record-holder of the fastest to register 2,000-ODI runs. He crossed the landmark in only 40 innings.Advertisement After returning to the ODI side from a toe injury, Smriti performed superbly, finishing the 3rd ODI with 74 runs from 63 balls as India won the match by 6-wickets. She hit 9 boundaries and 3 maximums while chasing down 195 to take home the 3-match series 2-1. Young Jemimah Rodrigues scored 69 from 92 as the duo put on a solid 141-run opening stand.In the first innings of the match, the Indian bowlers restricted West Indies through tight spells from Jhulan Goswami and Poonam Yadav, who picked up 2 wickets each.Advertisement Advertisement
By John BurtonLONG BRANCH — A city man was arrested this week for the March robbery of a Sovereign Bank in his hometown.Police have charged Manuel Sotogonzalez, 39, with second-degree robbery, following a nearly six-month joint investigation conducted by city police and the Monmouth County Prosecutor’s Office, according to Charles Webster, public information officer for the prosecutor’s office.Police responded to a report of the robbery on March 4 at the bank, 600 Broadway. Witnesses told police, the suspect allegedly entered the bank and approached a teller, demanding money. The teller handed over an undisclosed amount of cash, with the suspect fleeing the scene prior to the police arriving, according to Webster.Sotogonzalez’s bail was set at $125,000, without the option of posting a 10 percent bond. He was being held in the Monmouth County Correctional Institution, Freehold.
SAN JOSE — Sharks center Logan Couture said there might have been a time early in his NHL career when he was fully conscious of any active point streak that he was enjoying.That’s changed, Couture said, to the point where it wasn’t until a couple of games ago that he was aware he was on another extended run.“A couple of the guys said something,” Couture said Tuesday morning. “I guess when you’re on a streak like this, to keep it going, you just focus on helping the team win and good things …
It’s been a month since reports of the Houston Astros’ electronic sign stealing broke. And one Oakland A’s pitcher — a former Houston Astros pitcher — was at the center of the story. Manager Bob Melvin spoke about the incident at the Winter Meetings in San Diego.A’s right-handed pitcher Mike Fiers shared his knowledge of the practice to The Athletic, expressing his fears over the disadvantage sign-stealing might pose for young pitchers and players trying to prove themselves in the league.In …
South African Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan speaking at the Financial Times Future and Legacy Dinner hosted by BrandSouth Africa at Soccer City in Johannesburg on 22 July. (Image: Nosimilo Ramela) MEDIA CONTACTS • Jabulani Sikhakhane Treasury Communications Unit +27 12 315 5944 or +27 72 625 7283 [email protected] • Kershia Singh Treasury Communications Unit +27 12 315 5819 or +27 72 623 4608 [email protected] • Brand South Africa +27 11 483-0122 [email protected] RELATED ARTICLES • From Football Fridays to Fly the Flag • Top marks for South Africa’s World Cup • Out of Africa, something new • A legacy of harmony and pride • World Cup: 97% of SA ‘more proud’“Our hosting of the World Cup was, and has been, about the creation of new realities and the destruction of old myths and pessimism about South Africa,” Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan said at the Financial Times Future and Legacy Dinner hosted by Brand South Africa on 22 July. Read the full speech.We gather this evening less than two weeks after the final match of the 2010 Fifa World Cup. We also meet four days after Nelson Mandela celebrated his 92nd year on this planet, 67 of which he has selflessly dedicated to bringing about a free South Africa, and since 1994, the creation of a better life for the majority of South Africans.Both the life of Mr Mandela and the hosting of the World Cup share one a common thread: the destruction of old myths and the creation of new realities and possibilities.A careful reading of Mandela’s life story shows him to be a destroyer of myths and a creator of new realities. When Mandela was sent to jail 48 years ago, he arrived on Robben Island a man who posed a serious threat to the political powers of the time. Prison guards treated Madiba and his fellow prisoners as enemies of the state. Over time, Mandela and his colleagues managed to destroy this myth and helped some of the prison guards to see a new reality, a reality that their prisoners were just as human as themselves and that they were fighting for a just cause.Because he is not bound to old myths and he is not blind to new realities, Madiba saw – much earlier than most activists – an opportunity to bring an end to apartheid through talks, which he initiated from the confines of his prison cell in 1985 when he wrote to the then Justice Minister Kobie Coetsee.Mandela would later explain, “I chose to tell no one what I was about to do. There are times when a leader must move ahead of the flock, go off in a new direction, confident that he is leading his people in the right direction.”And since his release from prison 20 years ago, Madiba has vanquished many more myths and created many more new realities and possibilities, including that of the World Cup.In essence, our hosting of the World Cup was, and has been, about the creation of new realities and the destruction of old myths and pessimism about South Africa, and indeed, the rest of Africa.The euphoria we experienced in the past month isn’t going to last forever, but the momentum that it created, I believe, will last for many years to come. There existed a big gap between the old myth of a backward continent where lions roamed freely, and the reality of a country that is as capable as Germany in hosting a World Cup tournament.One economist was quoted recently as saying that the benefits to South Africa, and the rest of Africa of the World Cup, weren’t so much about the new infrastructure, the tourist and credit-card spending, but more about changing perceptions about South Africa and, indeed, the rest Africa.One would certainly hope that our success in hosting the 2010 Fifa World Cup has helped our sceptics catch-up with reality – the reality that we, as a nation, can rise to any challenge, if we so decide.The narrative about South Africa in the international media during the tournament suggests that we did close that gap. Reporting on South Africa has been the most positive since our successful transition to democracy in 1994. Importantly, for once, South Africans were more optimistic than anyone else in the world, more confident about their abilities than anyone else in the world, and more united about the experience they were creating for both the world and themselves.Just to recap – it took six years of meticulous planning, commitment, and the use of appropriate delivery models to build the required infrastructure: from stadiums, rail, buses and rapid-transport systems, the upgrading of existing airports, the construction of a new airport, the Gautrain, to the improvements to our roads, freeways, and broadcast and telecommunication systems.We must acknowledge the role of the tens of thousands of people who participated, directly and indirectly, in this construction and enabled, at very different levels from high-level technologically skilled people to lower skilled workers, who worked together to create this “miracle” we’ve just experienced.National government put in some R33-billion (US$4.5-billion) into preparations for the World Cup, investment that we saw as part of the long-term development plan for the country, rather than funding a once-off event. We must also remind ourselves that what government was able to put into this project came from the taxpayers of this country, both in the business sector and as individuals, and it is to them also that the credit must go. Hosting the 2010 Fifa World Cup acted as a catalyst for expanding our infrastructure base, skills development, employment creation and economic growth.More than 3-million soccer fans, both local and foreign, attended the 64 games and enjoyed the experience in our stadiums. There were over 3 000 hours of broadcast feed that included images of our extraordinary country in all its diversity. This was transmitted through fibre-optic cables and satellites to television sets in 217 countries and territories and with live content, for the first time, using 3D technology. The hosting of the 2010 Fifa World Cup has opened the eyes of the world to who we are as South Africa and what we are capable of.We had forecast that the 2010 Fifa World Cup would add 0.5 percentage points to annual growth this year. When we take account of the spending on stadiums and infrastructure since 2006, we find that the level of GDP is about one percent higher than it would have otherwise been.The hosting of the World Cup had other benefits which are not easily quantifiable and that will be realised over time. These include a boost to our national pride that comes with the realisation that “We can do it”.The tournament undoubtedly boosted our country’s standing internationally, showcasing its capabilities in delivering world-class infrastructure on time and without imposing a financial burden on the national fiscus.Now that the event is over, having been delivered with distinction, it is time look at the lessons learnt and our future infrastructure investments.There are three key lessons we have learnt from the delivery of 2010 Fifa World Cup projects.Firstly, complex challenges should be disaggregated into a number of clearly defined undertakings with budgets and cash flow. The complex 2010 Fifa World Cup project was disaggregated into a mere 24 projects. This enabled all institutions involved to focus on what was required to deliver on time and ultimately ensure a successful event.Secondly, using clearly defined projects, we need to develop a “roles and responsibility matrix” that indicates which organisation does what work, and by when. The roles and responsibility matrix apportioned accountability and responsibility in delivering the 2010 Fifa World Cup projects. This was a highly effective instrument for delivering the infrastructure on schedule.Thirdly, the 2010 Fifa World Cup had an immovable deadline that all parties had to work towards and therefore an overall program with individual project schedules, targets and deadlines was prepared. This kept the overall project tight with little room to manoeuvre and miss deadlines.These lessons will be taken forward in our public sector infrastructure program, where R846-billion ($115-billion) has been committed over the next three years.We have budgeted that R261-billion ($35-billion) will be spent this financial year, increasing to R300-billion ($40.7-billion) in financial year 2013.More than 45% of these funds are committed to the electricity, freight rail and ports sectors. Investing significant resources in these sectors will ensure security of supply of electricity, improved quality of freight and shipping services and therefore growth in our exports, specifically mining and the manufacturing base.The transport sector plays an important role in connecting our economic nodes to markets and households. As the economy grows, the capacity on the primary road network, the rail network and the container terminals at Ngqura, Cape Town and Durban Harbours will be increased. Along with this investment, operational efficiency must improve.There is intensive work taking place presently to formulate a long-term infrastructure investment plan. Similarly, we are working at different funding options for both social and economic infrastructure. Once completed, this plan will ensure that South Africa has a sustained and sustainable infrastructure delivery plan.President John F Kennedy once said, “It is not the wealth of the nation that builds roads, but the roads that build the wealth of a nation”. This applies particularly to rural areas, where improved transport infrastructure often makes a big improvement.Well-developed and maintained infrastructure is essential for a nation’s productivity and, ultimately for economic growth and job creation. The infrastructure development process itself leads to job creation and boosts demand for certain goods.But the indirect benefits of infrastructure improvements on economic activity are probably more important: ensuring that the lights remain on, that there is clean drinking water in the taps, and that people and goods can move around the country efficiently and be shipped abroad quickly and at reasonable cost are crucial to support new investment, raise the productivity of workers and increase exports.All of society benefits when goods and services can be accessed more easily and are more widely distributed throughout the country; something that is not possible if facilitating infrastructure is absent or not functioning properly.It is for this reason that infrastructure development is a key priority, not only in South Africa but in most emerging market countries today. It is for this reason also that the developed world is taking a second look at emerging markets, because there are many more new possibilities in these markets that don’t exist in the developed world itself today, or for the foreseeable future.The significant resources we committed before the World Cup to strengthen our regional and international integration, by improving infrastructure at our air and land ports of entry and increasing the flow of visitors through our borders will stand the country in good stead for attracting investors and tourists.But the most important legacy of the World Cup is the renewed confidence in us as a nation that the hosting of the tournament has brought about. The conversation in South Africa today is how to build on this to tackle our most pressing social challenges: public education, health, and unemployment.Confidence is a key ingredient in any successful endeavour. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, a professor of business administration at the Harvard Business School, wrote that confidence is made up of positive expectations for favourable outcomes.“Confidence influences the willingness to invest – to commit money, time, reputation, emotional energy, or other resources – or to withhold or hedge investment. This investment, or its absence, shapes the ability to perform. In that sense, confidence lies at the heart of civilization. Everything about an economy, a society, an organisation, or a team depends on it.“Every step we take, every investment we make, is based on whether we feel we can count on ourselves and others to accomplish what has been promised. Confidence determines whether our steps – individually or collectively – are tiny and tentative or big and bold.”We took one big, bold step in 1994; we took another one in 2010. The question for us as South Africans is when will we take the next big one? It is big and bold steps that we, as a country, must take if we are to put an end to poverty and unemployment.President Zuma said earlier today, when briefing the media on the outcomes of the Cabinet Lekgotla, that government will soon meet business and labour to discuss how best to improve the quality of life of our people. Those meetings should lay the basis for an agenda that all South Africans should rally around, as they did for the World Cup – an agenda of how best to position South Africa to benefit from the new reality and new possibilities – the new reality of a world with multiple poles of growth.Developing countries such as South Africa have abundant, profitable investment opportunities for industrial development and projects that can improve the efficiency of their infrastructure. South Africa and the rest of Africa can be another source of global growth.Through the delivery of the infrastructure and successful hosting of the 2010 Fifa World Cup, we have created a new reality and opened up new possibilities for South African and the African continent, as a destination for long-term investment.The challenge for us, as it was for the soccer teams in the final match, is how to operate well as a team. The group of players that operated as the better team came out as victors at the end, and I am sure we will be able to do the same as we take on our next set of challenges as South Africans.
26 April 2011 At least 24 new political parties will contest the upcoming local government elections in South Africa – an indication of a thriving democracy, says Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) chair Brigalia Bam. South Africans will go to the polls on 18 May to elect their new local government officials. A total of 121 political parties will contest the elections across the country. This is an increase from the 97 parties in 2006 and the 79 in 2000. Participation of independent candidates, those without political-party backing, is also on the rise. The total number of independents stands at 748 this year, up from 667 in the previous local elections. The surfacing of new parties and independents has directly increased the number of candidates to 53 596 compared to 45 179 in 2006 and 30 477 in 2000. “The increase in parties and candidates participating in the upcoming election is an indication of a broadening in electoral participation at local level,” said Bam, “and is very encouraging as far as the entrenchment of democratic processes is concerned.” Needless to say, a large number of candidates represent well-established political parties. The African National Congress (ANC) and the Democratic Alliance (DA) dominate the candidates list, with 9 403 and 7 117 respective candidates countrywide. The ANC is the only party that will have candidates contesting in all the country’s 278 municipalities, while the DA will be contesting 272 municipalities. Some ANC members have decided to go independent after being dissatisfied about candidates’ selection. Most of the new organisations join scores of others that only contest in their respective provinces. They operate as organisations hoping to have future influence over how their communities are governed.New kids on the block The National Freedom Party (NFP) is the only recently formed organisation contesting outside its founding province. The NFP was launched by Zanele kaMagwaza-Msibi, who led a splinter group from the Inkatha Freedom Party just three months ago. It has 2 591 candidates in eight provinces. More than 50% of its members are in KwaZulu-Natal, where it was founded. The Congress of the People, an ANC break-away party founded in 2008, is also comparatively new in the IEC’s books as far as local government elections go. Although somewhat troubled, the party enjoys the third largest representation with 5 929 candidates in all nine provinces. It will contest in 214 municipalities. Though it’s had a chance to establish itself since its founding in 2007, the African People’s Convention will participate in nationwide local elections for the first time this year. The party, a splinter from the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, will contest in all provinces with 2 158 candidates. The Mpumalanga Party is a new local organisation campaigning via a ticket of relocating the community of Moutse back to the borders of Mpumalanga province. The community has been up in arms over the government’s decision to demarcate it to Limpopo province, where the party’s 74 candidate are registered. Ikusasa Lesizwe Independent Movement is another new organisation in Mpumalanga. The party has 44 candidates in the province. Makana Independent New Deal is new on the political scene in the Eastern Cape. It has a total of 27 candidates in the province. Other fresh organisations include the Socialist Civic Movement and the Bushbuckridge Residents Association in Mpumalanga.Women participation There’s a “slight” increase in the number of women running for election in their areas. More than 19 700 women will stand as candidates, compared to 15 718 in the 2006 local elections. This means 37% of the candidates are women, a 2% increase from 2006. “I am happy that a slight increase in the percentage of women candidates has been recorded,” Bam said. Women remain the majority on the IEC voters’ roll, which has more than 24.5-million South Africans registered on it. “I am very proud of women,” Bam said. “Despite keeping the home fires burning, women are consistently retained their overall majority in terms of the voter participation gender split in the voters’ roll.” With just more than a month to go to election day, campaigns are gaining momentum. All major parties have launched their manifestos and have embarked on all-out electioneering. “The IEC is proud of all who will be garnering votes to consolidate our gains and deepen our democracy,” Bam said. First published by MediaClubSouthAfrica.com – get free high-resolution photos and professional feature articles from Brand South Africa’s media service.
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I just returned from the Greenbuild conference in Phoenix. This annual event, now in its eighth year, has become the leading locus for exchange of information about the rapidly growing green building movement. This year’s event drew some 22,000 attendees, including architects, builders, engineers, developers, and manufacturers, from the U.S., Canada, and dozens of other countries.As is typical at Greenbuild, I spent a lot of my time in the trade show. While there were only a few hundred exhibitors at the first Greenbuild in Austin, Texas, this year’s conference drew 1,800 exhibitors–so I had acres to cover. Indeed, there was lots of new stuff–despite the state of the economy and building industry. This week I’ll focus on one of them: a phase-change wallboard, ThermalCORE, just announced by National Gypsum.You might remember from high school chemistry that when materials change phase (from solid to liquid or liquid to gas) they absorb a lot of energy, and that energy is released when they revert to the lower energy state. If you add heat to a bucket of ice cubes at 0°F, for example, the temperature will rise steadily until it gets to 32°F; then it will remain at that temperature until all of the ice has melted, at which point the temperature of the water will rise again. (This is why we put ice in our drinks; it keeps the drink cool even as we add heat to it–from the room.)This principle can be utilized with heat storage in a house if the melting point of the phase-change material is about room temperature.Phase-change materials (PCMs) were first introduced in the 1970s. Most common were “eutectic salts” and specialized paraffins with melting points between 70° and 80°F. Some were housed in coffee-can-sized metal containers, others in plastic bags. None of these products stayed on the market long; after a few hundred cycles, they no longer melted or thawed completely over the narrow temperature range needed to make them effective for heat storage.National Gypsum’s ThermalCORE that was introduced at Greenbuild (but is not yet on the market) is a micro-encapsulated paraffin PCM. Tiny spheres of paraffin, just 5-10 microns in diameter (less than half the size of Portland cement particles), are encapsulated in acrylic shells, and these are mixed with the gypsum in drywall. The paraffin melts at 73°F, plus-or-minus 2°F. The PCM used in ThermalCORE is Micronal, made by the German chemical giant BASF. Micronal was introduced about five years ago, and BASF has been looking for a U.S. drywall manufacturer to partner with on a PCM wallboard.BASF’s Micronal PCM is available in commercial products in Europe, and it has gone through extensive testing. According to a BASF scientist I spoke with at Greenbuild, the material has been tested through 10,000 phase-change cycles (equivalent to 30 years of use) with no loss in performance.National Gypsum’s ThermalCORE has fiberglass skins (instead of paper), but otherwise looks no different than standard drywall; the micro-encapsulated PCM spheres are far too small to see.Studies show that the ThermalCORE wallboard stores about 22 BTUs of thermal energy per square foot. The idea is that warmth from the sun during the day will be stored in the wallboard, and then released at night to keep the space warm. It will both help prevent overheating during the day and help reduce heating costs during the evening hours. In essence, it’s a high-tech form of thermal-mass materials that are typically used in passive solar design (brick facing walls, tile floors, etc.).Following the roll-out at Greenbuild, National Gypsum will begin field trials to determine how this product can most effectively be used in home building. Field trial sites are currently being sought through the California Emerging Technologies Coordinating Council and the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado; most will be in California.National Gypsum has not said what the cost of ThermalCORE wallboard will be, or when it will be commercially available–except to say that it will not be introduced until after the field trials are complete. For more information, visit ThermalCORE’s website. I’ve been following PCMs for thirty years now, and I think this is the first such product that has a chance of really succeeding–if the cost isn’t too high. I look forward to tracking ThermalCORE’s roll-out.I invite you to share your comments on this blog. You can also follow my musings on Twitter.